Because the vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV, it will not prevent all cases of cervical, penile, and anal cancer or genital warts. About 30 percent of cervical cancers will not be prevented by the vaccine, so it will be important for women to continue getting regular Pap tests.

Also, the vaccine does not prevent about 10 percent of genital warts—nor will it prevent other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). So it will still be important for sexually active adults to reduce exposure to HPV and other STIs.