Foodborne Illness Listed by Pathogen

Click on the pathogen name to get information on:

  • Food commonly associated with each pathogen.
  • Symptoms of the disease experienced by the victim.
  • Controls or steps a food establishment can take to limit or prevent the spread of the pathogen.
  • Onset, which is the time from when the victim is exposed to the pathogen until symptoms start to show.
  • Duration is the amount of time the symptoms last.

Visit the Foodborne Illness List by Food for cooking temperatures, pathogens and controls for specific food items.

Pathogens

Anisakis simplexMushroom toxins
Bacillus cereusNorovirus
CampylobacterSalmonella
Ciguatera poisoningScromboid poisoning
Clostridium botulinumShellfish toxins
Clostridium perfringensShigella spp.
Cryptosporidium parvumStaphylococcus aureus
Cyclospora cayetanensisTaenia saginata and Taenia solium
E. coli 0157:H7Toxoplasma gondii
Giardia duodenalisTrichinella spiralis
Hepatitis AVibrio spp.
Listeria monocytogenesYersinia spp.
    1. Pathogen: Anisakis simplex
      • Type: Parasite
      • Onset: One hour to two weeks
      • Duration: Up to three weeks
      • Food:
        • raw or undercooked seafood, including
          • cod
          • haddock
          • fluke
          • pacific salmon
          • herring
          • flounder
          • monkfish
      • Symptoms:
        • Anisakiasis is most frequently diagnosed when the affected individual feels a tingling or tickling sensation in the throat and coughs up or manually extracts a nematode.
        • In more severe cases there is acute abdominal pain, much like acute appendicitis accompanied by a nauseous feeling.
      • Controls:
        • Cook fish to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use fish from certified suppliers.
        • If supplier has not treated the fish for parasites, freeze fish to -35°C (-31°F) or below for 15 hours, or to -20°C (-4°F) or below for seven days.

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    1. Pathogen: Bacillus cereus
      • Type: Bacteria
      • Onset: One to 15 hours
      • Duration: 24 hours
      • Food:
        • dairy products
        • vegetables
        • fish
        • rice
        • potatoes
        • pasta
      • Symptoms:
        • watery diarrhea
        • abdominal cramps
        • pain
        • vomiting occurs mainly with the emetic type of syndrome
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.
        • Hold, cool, and reheat food correctly.

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    1. Pathogen: Campylobacter
      • Type: Bacteria
      • Onset: Two to five days
      • Duration: Seven to 10 days
      • Food:
        • raw and undercooked chicken
        • raw and improperly pasteurized milk
        • raw clams
        • non-chlorinated water
      • Symptoms:
        • diarrhea that may be watery or sticky and may contain blood
        • fever
        • abdominal pain
        • nausea
        • headache
        • muscle pain
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.
        • Ensure adequate water treatment.

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    1. Pathogen: Ciguatera poisoning
      • Type: Natural Toxin
      • Onset: Six hours
      • Duration: Three to seven days
      • Food:
        • Marine finfish most commonly implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning include
          • groupers
          • barracuda
          • snappers
          • jacks
          • mackerel
          • triggerfish
      • Symptoms:
        • numbness and tingling around the mouth, which may spread to the extremities
        • nausea
        • vomiting
        • diarrhea
        • headache
        • temperature
        • sensory reversal
        • acute sensitivity to temperature extremes
        • vertigo
        • muscular weakness to the point of prostration
        • arrhythmia
        • bradycardia or tachycardia
        • reduced blood pressure
      • Controls:
        • Get fish from approved suppliers.

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    1. Pathogen: Clostridium botulinum
      • Type: Bacteria
      • Onset: 18 – 36 hours
      • Duration: Causes death without antitoxin
      • Food:
        • Incorrectly canned food.
        • Reduced oxygen packaged (ROP) food.
        • Temperature abused vegetables such as baked potatoes.
        • Untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures.
      • Symptoms:
        • Weakness and vertigo, followed by double vision and progressive difficulty in speaking, breathing, and swallowing.
        • There may also be abdominal distention and constipation.
        • The toxin eventually causes paralysis, which inhibits respiration and death from asphyxia results.
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.
        • Hold, cool, and reheat food correctly.
        • Inspect cans for damage.

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    1. Pathogen: Clostridium perfringens
      • Type: Bacteria
      • Onset: Eight to 22 hours
      • Duration: 24 hours
      • Food:
        • beef
        • pork
        • lamb
        • chicken
        • turkey
        • produce
      • Symptoms:
        • intense abdominal cramps
        • vomiting
        • diarrhea
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.
        • Hold, cool, and reheat food correctly.

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    1. Pathogen: Cryptosporidium parvum
      • Type: Parasite
      • Onset: Two to 10 days
      • Duration: Usually two to four days, but can last up to two weeks.
      • Food:
        • Cryptosporidium parvumis usually associated with contaminated water but since it is spread through a fecal-oral route, it can transmitted through any contaminated food.
      • Symptoms:
        • frequent, watery diarrhea
        • nausea
        • vomiting
        • abdominal cramps
        • low grade fever
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.
        • Avoid untreated water.

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    1. Pathogen: Cyclospora cayetanensis
      • Type: Parasite
      • Onset: Five to eight days
      • Duration: Several weeks to over a month
      • Food:
        • Cyclospora cayetanensis is generally associated with raspberries but since it is spread through a fecal-oral route, can be picked up from any food that has been contaminated by an infected person.
      • Symptoms:
        • watery diarrhea
        • loss of appetite
        • weight loss
        • abdominal bloating and cramping
        • increased flatulence
        • nausea
        • fatigue
        • low-grade fever
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.
        • Thoroughly wash produce.

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    1. Pathogen: E. coli 0157:H7
      • Type: Bacteria
      • Onset: Three to nine days
      • Duration: Eight days
      • Food:
        • beef
        • contaminated vegetables
      • Symptoms:
        • abdominal pain
        • diarrhea that may be bloody
        • vomiting
        • fever
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.
        • Get produce from approved suppliers.
        • Keep employees who have diarrhea or who have been diagnosed with hemorrahagic colitis out of the operation.

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    1. Pathogen: Giardia duodenalis
      • Type: Parasite
      • Onset: One to three weeks
      • Duration: Two to six weeks
      • Food:
        • Giardia duodenalis is usually associated with untreated water from lakes and streams but since it is spread through a fecal-oral route, it can transmitted through any contaminated food.
      • Symptoms:
        • diarrhea
        • gas or flatulence
        • greasy stool that floats
        • stomach or abdominal cramps
        • upset stomach or nausea
        • dehydration
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.
        • Avoid untreated water.

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    1. Pathogen: Hepatitis A
      • Type: Virus
      • Onset: 15 to 50 days
      • Duration: One to two weeks
      • Food:
        • The Hepatitus A virus is found in human feces and is associated with ready-to-eat food, and shellfish from contaminated water.
        • A person infected with Hepatitis A are contagious before symptoms occur.
      • Symptoms:
        • fever
        • anorexia
        • nausea
        • lethargy
        • dark urine
        • jaundice
        • enlarged and painful liver
      • Controls:
        • Keep employees who have jaundice or who have been diagnosed with Hepatitis A out of the operation.
        • Wash hands – hand washing is critical.
        • Eliminate bare-hand contact of ready-to-eat food.
        • Get shellfish from approved suppliers.

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    1. Pathogen: Listeria monocytogenes
      • Type: Bacteria
      • Onset: Three days to three weeks
      • Duration: Five to 10 days
      • Food:
        • raw or inadequately pasteurized milk
        • cheeses
        • ice cream
        • raw vegetables
        • raw and cooked poultry, meat, and pork
        • raw and smoked fish
      • Symptoms:
        • Mild flu-like symptoms in healthy individuals.
        • Symptoms that can also occur include
          • fever
          • muscle aches
          • nausea
          • diarrhea
          • headaches
          • neck aches
          • confusion
          • loss of balance
        • Can cause miscarriage in pregnant women.
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.
        • Discard any product that has passed its use-by or expiration date.
        • Avoid using unpasteurized dairy products.

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    1. Pathogen: Mushroom Toxins
      • Type: Natural Toxin
      • Onset: 15 minutes to 15 days
      • Duration: Two hours to several months
      • Food:
        • Mushroom poisoning is caused by the consumption of raw or cooked fruiting bodies (mushrooms, toadstools) of a number of species of higher fungi.
      • Symptoms:
        • Symptoms range from mild upset stomach to diarrhea and vomiting to convulsions, coma, and death.
      • Controls:
        • Get mushrooms from approved suppliers.

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    1. Pathogen: Norovirus
      • Type: Virus
      • Onset: 16 to 72 hours
      • Duration: 60 hours
      • Food:
        • Noroviruses are found in human feces and are associated with ready-to-eat food and shellfish from contaminated water.
      • Symptoms:
        • diarrhea
        • nausea
        • vomiting
        • abdominal cramps
        • headache
        • body aches
        • chills
        • malaise
        • anorexia
        • low-grade fever
      • Controls:
        • Keep employees with diarrhea and vomiting or who have been diagnosed with Norovirus out of the operation.
        • Wash hands – hand washing is critical.
        • Eliminate bare-hand contact of ready-to-eat food.
        • Get shellfish from approved suppliers.

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    1. Pathogen: Salmonella
      • Type: Bacteria
      • Onset: 12 to 72 hours
      • Duration: One to seven days
      • Food:
        • poultry
        • eggs
      • Symptoms:
        • Salmonella Gastroenteritis (caused by any of the salmonella species other than salmonella typhi):
          • Mild, prolonged diarrhea.
        • Typhoid Fever (caused by salmonella typhi):
          • nausea
          • vomiting
          • abdominal cramps
          • diarrhea
          • fever
          • chills
          • low-grade fever
          • muscle aches
          • headache
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.

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    1. Pathogen: Scromboid poisoning
      • Type: Natural Toxin
      • Onset: Immediate to 30 minutes
      • Duration: Three hours to several days
      • Food:
        • Fishery products that have been implicated in scombroid poisoning include
          • the tunas (e.g., skipjack and yellowfin)
          • mahi mahi
          • bluefish
          • sardines
          • mackerel
          • amberjack
          • abalone
      • Symptoms:
        • Initial symptoms may include
          • a tingling or burning sensation in the mouth,
          • a rash on the upper body and
          • a drop in blood pressure.
          • Frequently, headaches and itching of the skin are encountered.
        • The symptoms may progress to nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea and may require hospitalization, particularly in the case of elderly or impaired patients.
      • Controls:
        • Get fish from approved reptuable suppliers.

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    1. Pathogen: Shellfish Toxins
      • Type: Natural Toxin
      • Onset: 30 minutes to two hours
      • Duration: Three to five days
      • Food:
        • Shellfish poisoning is caused by a group of toxins created by planktonic algae upon which the shellfish feed.
        • All shellfish (filter-feeding molluscs) are potentially toxic.
          • PSP is generally associated with mussels, clams, cockles, and scallops.
          • NSP is associated with shellfish harvested along the Florida coast and the Gulf of Mexico.
          • DSP is associated with mussels, oysters, and scallops.
          • ASP is associated with mussels.
      • Symptoms:
        • In the case of PSP, the effects are predominantly neurological and include tingling, burning, numbness, drowsiness, incoherent speech, and respiratory paralysis.
        • DSP is primarily observed as a generally mild gastrointestinal disorder.
        • Symptoms of NSP are tingling and numbness of lips, tongue, and throat, muscular aches, dizziness, reversal of the sensations of hot and cold, diarrhea, and vomiting.
        • ASP is characterized by gastrointestinal disorders (vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain) and neurological problems (confusion, memory loss, disorientation, seizure, coma).
      • Controls:
        • Get shellfish from approved suppliers.

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    1. Pathogen: Shigella spp.
      • Type: Bacteria
      • Onset: 12 to 96 hours
      • Duration: Seven to 14 days
      • Food:
        • salads (potato, tuna, shrimp, macaroni, chicken)
        • raw vegetables
        • milk and dairy products
        • fruits
        • bakery products
        • ready-to-eat food
      • Symptoms:
        • diarrhea, which may be watery or bloody
        • fever
        • nausea
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.

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    1. Pathogen: Staphylococcus aureus
      • Type: Bacteria
      • Onset: Four hours
      • Duration: Two days
      • Food:
        • Staph is common in the nasal passages, throat, hair, and skin.
        • Food handlers are the main source of contamination.
      • Symptoms:
        • nausea
        • vomiting
        • retching
        • abdominal cramps
        • diarrhea
        • prostration (complete physical or mental exhaustion)
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.
        • Reheat food correctly.

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    1. Pathogen: Taenia saginata and Taenia solium
      • Type: Parasite
      • Food:
        • Commonly associated with beef or pork.
      • Symptoms:
        • Tapeworms are usually asymptomatic. However heavy infection often results in
          • weight loss
          • dizziness
          • abdominal pain
          • diarrhea
          • headaches
          • nausea
          • constipation
          • chronic indigestion
          • loss of appetite
        • There can be intestinal obstruction in humans and this can be fixed by surgery.
        • The tapeworm can also expel antigens that can cause an allergic reaction in the individual.
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.
        • Get beef and pork from certified suppliers.

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    1. Pathogen: Toxoplasma gondii
      • Type: Parasite
      • Food:
        • Toxoplasma gondii is carried by cats and shed in the feces.
        • It is spread by a fecal-oral route and it can transmitted through any contaminated food.
        • It is associated with undercooked, contaminated meat (especially pork, lamb, and venison).
      • Symptoms:
        • Healthy people infected by Toxoplasma gondii generally exhibit no symptoms or mild “flu-like” symptoms.
        • In newly infected pregnant women it can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, or in the child, can cause potential vision loss, mental disability, and seizures.
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.

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    1. Pathogen: Trichinella spiralis

      • Type: Parasite
      • Onset: 12 hours to two days
      • Duration: Several weeks to over a month
      • Food:
        • Commonly associated with pork.
      • Symptoms:
        • nausea
        • vomiting
        • sweating
        • diarrhea
        • Five to seven days after the appearance of symptoms, facial edema and fever may occur.
        • After 10 days, intense muscular pain, difficulty breathing, weakening of pulse and blood pressure, heart damage and various nervous disorders may occur, eventually leading to death due to heart failure, respiratory complications or kidney malfunction.
      • Controls:
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Get pork from a certified supplier.

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    1. Pathogen: Vibrio spp.

      • Type: Bacteria
      • Onset: four hours to five days
      • Duration: Three to seven days. Vibro vulnificus can cause death within three days.
      • Food:
        • raw and undercooked fish
        • shellfish/oysters
      • Symptoms:
        • nausea
        • vomiting
        • abdominal pain
        • diarrhea
        • fever
        • headache
        • dehydration
        • shock
        • septicemia
      • Controls:
        • Get seafood from an approved source.
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.

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    1. Pathogen: Yersinia spp.

      • Type: Bacteria
      • Onset: 11 days
      • Duration: One to three days
      • Food:
        • meat
        • oysters
        • fish
        • raw milk
      • Symptoms:
        • Diarrhea and/or vomiting, but fever and abdominal pain are hallmark symptoms.
        • Yersinia infections mimic appendicitis, which leads to unnecessary operations.
        • Yersiniosis has been known to cause death in rare cases.
      • Controls:
        • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to minimum prescribed internal temperature.
        • Use proper food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Hold food at proper temperatures.

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Contact Information

Phone: (702) 759-0588

Email: environmentalhealth@snhd.org

 

Updated on: October 10, 2018

2018-10-10T08:45:46-07:00